By William E. Welmers
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Extra info for A Grammar of Vai (University of California publications in linguistics; v.84)
Or, marginally to the phonologic sys[ 36 ] 37 Intonations tem, by a sequence of nasals interrupted by a glottal stop, with the tonal sequence low-high, such as [n'nn]), which after a negative question corresponds to English 'Yes*. That is, the Vai answers indicate whether the statement underlying the question is correct or incorrect, while the English answers indicate whether the correct statement concerning the situation would be affirmative or negative. 3. A sentence-internal pause, as at the end of a subordinate clause, is intonationally marked in much the same way as are questions, but with a less extreme raising of pitch.
Fur- ther details on the morphemes in question will be found in appropriate sections dealing with the grammar later in this study. Some typical examples of the first person singular pronoun, including phonetic transcriptions, are: n ba [» b a ] / fa n ma [4 taa t a a •a [- fa] / % \ , ma t a a j 'my m o t h e r ' 'my f a t h e r ' ' I d i d n ' t go' •I went' n sun [«»' t a ' a ' a ] [n s u n ] / " la' [n 'my e y e s ' keq [J-' 3»] [fl k e n ] li 'my h e a d ' 13 "3 k u i ] r kpa [nm da] kun] kpa] *my n o s e ' 'my mouth* 'my f o o t ' 'what i s owed t o me' One a l l o t o n i c phenomenon i s worthy of n o t e .
More formally, the two categories of nouns are distinguished by a difference in their construction with a possessor. 2. The possessor of a relational noun is immediately preposed to it, with no additional marker for the possessive construction. , 'the dog's mouth' 'the man's father' The stem forms of pronouns are used as possessives with relational nouns. 3. theirs' The possessor of a free noun is followed by a morpheme /a/ in- dicating the possessive construction. , kaie a keqe 'the man's house' g fa a niie 'my father's cow' The combination of a pronoun with this morpheme /a/ is, however, here written without space.