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By Sandra L. Singer

In the interval among the Civil conflict and global conflict I, German universities supplied North American girls with possibilities in graduate education that weren't on hand to them at domestic. This education allowed girls to compete to a better measure with males in more and more professionalized fields. In go back for such possibilities, those girls performed a key function in establishing up German universities to all girls. Many dedicated the remainder of their lives to making higher study and graduate possibilities for different ladies, without end altering the process greater schooling in North America.

This learn presents debts of the magnificent boundaries encountered by way of those first girls scholars in Europe. It files their perseverance and hard-won triumphs and comprises besides the tales of the innovative males who mentored them and fought for his or her rights to raised schooling. by no means earlier than has documentation of such a lot of North American scholars at German-speaking universities been incorporated in a single quantity. This number of tales from ladies throughout disciplines makes it attainable to evaluate the really outstanding nature in their mixed contributions to better schooling and learn in North the USA and Europe.

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79 Between 1882 and 1913, Russian women made up 75 percent of all foreign women studying at Swiss universities. During that same period of time, they comprised 62 percent of all women studying at Swiss universities. 80 Russian women tended to study medicine. Between 1882 and 1913, 74 percent of Russian women at Swiss universities studied medicine. This is in contrast to 36 percent of the rest of the women students. 83 During that same period of time, it appears that no North American woman earned a medical degree in Berlin.

She believed that the Saxon government was afraid to continue to admit women for fear that a wave of Russian women would descend upon its universities as it had in Zurich. Since the ukase, Russian women had either returned home or sought refuge at other Western European universities, in particular, the University of Bern. German universities did not wish to offer Russian women such a refuge. 94 Thomas's fear was indirectly confirmed by the action taken by the Saxon Ministry of Culture in December of 1879.

The midnineteenth century saw a major restructuring of German medical science, as there was a distinct move away from the philosophical approach in the biological sciences of Naturphilosophie to experimental laboratory investigation. Experimental research came to dominate German medical science to a far greater degree than it did French medical science. Further, as Kenneth Ludmerer notes in his history of American medical education,15 German medical research had another advantage over the French in that many of the greatest German medical researchers were also professors at the university or worked in institutions or hospitals closely affiliated with a university.

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