Download Antitrust and the Formation of the Postwar World (Columbia by Wyatt Wells PDF

By Wyatt Wells

ISBN-10: 0231123981

ISBN-13: 9780231123983

ISBN-10: 023112399X

ISBN-13: 9780231123990

ISBN-10: 0231502737

ISBN-13: 9780231502733

At the present time antitrust legislations shapes the coverage of just about each huge corporation, regardless of the place established. yet this wasn't regularly the case. prior to international warfare II, the legislation of so much business nations tolerated or even inspired cartels, while American statutes banned them. within the wake of worldwide struggle II, the USA committed massive assets to development a liberal fiscal order, which Washington believed used to be essential to keeping not just prosperity but additionally peace after the struggle. Antitrust was once a cornerstone of that coverage. This attention-grabbing publication exhibits how the us sought to impose -- and with what effects -- its antitrust coverage on different countries, in particular in Europe and Japan. Wyatt Wells chronicles how the assault on cartels and monopoly in another country affected every thing from strength coverage and alternate negotiations to the career of Germany and Japan. He indicates how a small team of zealots led via Thurman Arnold, who turned head of the Justice Department's Antitrust department in 1938, specific cartels and big businesses during the international: IG Farben of Germany, Mitsui and Mitsubishi of Japan, Imperial Chemical Industries of england, Philips of the Netherlands, DuPont and basic electrical of the U.S., and extra. Wells brilliantly indicates how as a consequence, the architects of the postwar financial system -- particularly Lucius Clay, John McCloy, William Clayton, Jean Monnet, and Ludwig Erhard -- uncoupled political ideology from antitrust coverage, remodeling Arnold's attempt right into a capacity to advertise company potency and inspire pageant.

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Extra info for Antitrust and the Formation of the Postwar World (Columbia Studies in Contemporary American History)

Example text

His predecessor, Robert Jackson, had launched several important cases, but Arnold massively expanded the activities of the bureau. He increased its staff of lawyers from fifty-eight when he took over in 1938 to two hundred by 1940, and during the same period the number of cases filed annually grew from eleven to ninety-two. These prosecutions were particularly aggressive. The Antitrust Division would file several cases, each with dozens of defendants, to break up anticompetitive practices that infected entire industries.

The antitrust drive had its origins in the sharp recession of 1937 and 1938. The downturn, probably triggered by large cuts in government spending and the Federal Reserve’s tightening of monetary policy, surprised the administration and encouraged enemies of the New Deal, who saw the recession as a harbinger of the president’s political demise. His administration was already in trouble. Roosevelt’s notorious “Court-packing” plan, which sought to remake the high bench in the image of the New Deal, had alienated many of the president’s supporters and had galvanized his opponents.

In the bosom of the American people. The one loves the abundant life, as expressed in the cheap and plentiful products of large-scale mass production and distribution. . The other soul yearns for former simplicities, for decentralization, for the interests of the ‘little man,’ . . ”3 Progressive Era reformers reflected this ambivalence. After 1900, activists labeled Progressives, touting a wide variety of programs, seized the political stage. Chief among the issues with which they wrestled was the place of big business in society.

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