By Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Ed.), Bernd Heine (Ed.)
The examine of grammaticalization increases a few primary theoretical concerns touching on the relation of langue and parole, creativity and automated coding, synchrony and diachrony, categoriality and continua, typological features and language-specific varieties, etc., and hence demanding situations a number of the easy tenets of 20th century linguistics.This two-volume paintings provides a couple of diversified theoretical viewpoints on grammaticalization and provides insights into the genesis, improvement, and association of grammatical different types in a few language world-wide, with specific realization to morphosyntactic and semantic-pragmatic issues.
The papers in quantity I are divided into sections, the 1st excited about normal procedure, and the second one with problems with directionality. these in quantity II are divided into 5 sections: verbal constitution, argument constitution, subordination, modality, and a number of paths of grammaticalization.
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Extra info for Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers
To summarize, all of the non-aspectual future grams in our database can be classified as belonging in one of these four groups on the basis of the other meanings that they express, no matter whether we have information about their lexical sources or not. The aspectual futures are not classified in these four categories, because, on the basis of the other meanings they express, we hypothesize that the aspectual futures develop in an entirely different way: As we argued in Section 3, aspectual futures develop as imperfectives or perfectives, which happen to accomodate future readings, but they do not develop explicit future semantics.
This refers to allomorphy conditioned by other grammatical morphemes, and the responses are Y and N. 4. Suprasegmental reduction: Here we note whether (Y) or not (N) the gram has stress or non-neutral tone; if stress alternates, A is recorded. The numerical values are as follows: DEPENDENCE: 1. Other allomorphs: 0 = 0; 1 or 2 = 2; 3 = 3; > 3 = 4 2. Phonological conditioning: N = 0; Y = 1 3. Morphological conditioning: N = 0; Y = 2 4. Stress: N = 2; A = l ; Y = 0 This scale ranges from 0 to 9, and again the higher number indicates a greater degree of grammaticization.
4) Todd has to go home at 5 on Thursdays. (5) Todd, you have to go home now. Such elements should be contrasted with grammatical elements which are used only in directives, such as imperatives, optatives and permissives. We might even want to say that the latter type, which we call speaker-oriented (because the speaker is doing something with the utterance) have little inherent semantic content, and that their principal function is to signal the type of speech act in which they occur. Agent-oriented modality, in contrast, includes those elements that may be used to report on situations in which a modality is in effect.